The treatment of experimental animal is not a topic many scientists are willing to talk about, other than to say that animal models are necessary for understanding human biology. With this belief and the belief that it is being done for the good of people, a critical look at the practice (and certainly not the morality) of animal experimentation is not systemically done.
Would knowing that animals are being treated extraordinarily cruelly in order to further the needs of the meat industry make a difference in considering the realities of animal experimentation?
“In Quest for More Meat Profits, U.S. Lab lets Animals Suffer,” an article on page 1 of the January, 20, 2015 New York Times, reporter Michael Moss exposed the abuse of animals at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center.
The U.S. Meat Animal Research Center is a federal institution in Nebraska (associated with the Univeristy of Nebraska) that centralizes animal research in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. It began about 50 years ago with the mission of helping producers of beef, pork, and lab turn a higher profit. And in the name of profit, gruesome experiments and horrible deaths are routine, as leaked by U.S. Meat Animal Research Center veterinarian scientist James Keen, who worked with the New York Times for a year for this article.
“Months into his new job at the center in 1989, Dr. Keen said, he got a call from a fellow worker asking him to help with a ‘downed cow.’
“There was a young cow, a teenager, with as many as six bulls,” he recalled. “The bulls were being studied for their sexual libido, and normally you would do that by putting a single bull in with a cow for 15 minutes. But these bulls had been in there for hours mounting her.”
The cow’s head was locked in a cage-like device to keep her immobile, he said. “Her back legs were broken. Her body was just torn up.”
Dr. Keen wanted to euthanize the animal, but the scientist in charge could not be tracked down for permission. A few hours later, the cow died.”
44 scientists and 73 technicians currently work at the Center. Two dozen employees were interviewed by the New York Times, some of whom had left the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Some defended the practices, but others were unhappy with the sloppy conditions in which thousands of animals have starved to death, where pain was not a deterrent to surgeries and experiments, and animals were operated on without anaesthesia. These researchers, as well as technicians and other workers, spoke with the New York Times reporter, giving shocking testimony of callousness.
The Times points out that the meat business is a rough one, where even the successes are brutal: for example, 10 million piglets are crushed by their mothers every year because pigs have been breed for large litters and the mothers are kept alive so long to do nothing but reproduce. But even to other meat producers, the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center stood out for its cruel practices.
The work at the center is not subject to the provisions of the Animal Welfare Act of 1966, which protects against animal abuse, but excludes farm animals used in research to benefit agriculture. Other farm animal experimenters have sought out oversight, anyway- but not the U.S. Meant Animal Research Center.
(Nor does the Animal Welfare Act protect birds, rats, and mice bred for research, for example.)
This was an unusual article for a mainstream newspaper to print, as the machinery of justice in the USA exerts itself to protect the businesses that profit from animals, and those that expose abuse are subject to legal action. The Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act (AETA) of 2006 forbids any action “for the purpose of damaging or interfering with the operations of an animal enterprise.” Lauren Gazzola, who exposed animal mistreatment at Huntington Life Sciences, was convicted in 2006 through provisions of the weaker, pre-2006 Act because she and others ran a website that “reported on and endorsed legal and illegal protests that caused the company to lose money.”
In addition, “Ag-Gag” state laws- laws that forbid photography and other exposure of conditions in the agriculture industry are on the books in several states, and are being pushed for passage in other states.
This article is in the New York Times, not Science or Nature or another science journal- yet. Mainstream scientific journals and organizations protect scientists’ “right” to experiment on animals. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the Association of American Universities (AAU) …the list is fairly endless. Perhaps scientists, and the scientific press, will one day speak out as the New York Times has done. Instead, they are reactive, with better treatment of animals following the exposures and actions of non-scientist activists and organizations.
When the Center heard that Keen had brought a reporter into a secure area, he was told that he would no longer be allowed in the Center. Presumably, he lost his job, and it is commendable that Keen spent a year helping the NY Times get this story out. But Keen had been there for 24 years, and most of the others who spoke out against the Center had already left. Fear and habit keep us silent.
Speak out when you see cruelty.
Update- Public shaming in the form of this NY Times article worked.
Push to protect farm animals
Science. This weeks session February 13, 2015 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/347/6223/696.full
The U.S. Congress last week proposed new protections for farm animals used in scientific research. The move comes in response to an exposé published in The New York Times last month, which documented numerous cases of animal suffering and death at a Department of Agriculture facility that has been trying to create larger and more fecund farm animals for several decades. Lawmakers from both parties are backing a bill—called the AWARE Act—that would expand the scope of the Animal Welfare Act, which governs the humane treatment of laboratory animals. Farm animals are currently excluded from the act, unless they’re used in biomedical research or exhibition. The new law would require closer monitoring—and more inspections—of research involving cows, pigs, and other livestock. http://scim.ag/farmani
March 13, 2015
USDA promises better oversight
New research projects have been halted at a controversial U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) facility, USDA Secretary Tom Vilsack announced 9 March. The agency’s Meat Animal Research Center in Clay Center, Nebraska, has come under fire for allegedly causing suffering and death while trying to create larger and more fecund farm animals. Last month, Congress proposed new protections for farm animals, backing a bill called the AWARE Act that would expand the Animal Welfare Act (Science, 13 February, p. 696). A draft of a USDA report released 9 March says “no instances of animal abuse, misuse, or mistreatment were observed” at the facility, but that the center had not provided proper oversight of animal care. Vilsack said no new research would be conducted until oversight is improved.
This Week’s Section Science 13 March 2015:
Vol. 347 no. 6227 pp. 1180-1182 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/347/6227/1180.full?utm_campaign=email-sci-ntw&utm_src=email
But yet, the town where the Meat Laboratory is does not seem to believe there is any cruelty happening in the Laboratory. The local TV station, in response to investigations of the lab, reported an “anti-ag agenda” on the part of the NY Times. Deans and cattlemen spoke up to deny any wrongdoing. Cattleman Dave Nichols had this bit of nonsense to say in response to allegations of animal cruelty: “Too many people are too far removed from producing food. Too many are poorly informed. Too many do not understand the difference between domesticated animals and their wild ancestors from 50,000 years ago. Most domesticated dogs would not last long in the wild, nor would most domesticated livestock. Not many humans would either. This is the world we live in.”
So anything goes.
Yesterday on the supposedly more gentle west coast, USDA inspectors (really) reported cruelty at a research facility in Seattle: Research animals at Seattle’s Children’s denied care. Seattle Children’s spokesperson Alyse Bernal had her own bit of irrelevance in response: “Seattle Children’s Research Institute is committed to upholding the highest standards for animal research.”
If you say it enough times, perhaps cruelty isn’t really cruelty.